Saturday, 14 July 2012

Parallel Universe...something new!

A parallel universe – they are the epiphany of science fiction. Just think, there could exist another you in another universe reading this passage! But you wouldn’t be reading it in the same manner as you are now. You could be reading words that are upside down! We have seen the concept of Parallel universes being used in films like Star Trek, Back to the future, Matrix. A popularly used example of parallel universe would be time travel. Time travel is a way of travelling from one universe to a parallel universe set back or forth in time.

Physicists such as Stephen Hawking, Michio Kaku and Hugh Everett have speculated upon the existence of parallel universe. Even the great Einstein believed in the possibility of parallel universe. Ironically the laws of physics followed by our planet need not be applicable in other universes. For instance, the speed of light could be exceeded!

It is believed that for every activity, there exists an alternate universe corresponding to each outcome of the activity. So there could be infinite number of alternate universes. Infinite number of you! What seems unreal could be real!

Universes that exist simultaneously are called Parallel Universes or Multiverses. The concept of Parallel Universes gives rise to the idea of the existence of another you. But the characteristics of the second individual would be different from that of the first individual due to the fact that the two universes differ based on certain features.

The concept of Alternate Universes might sound unrealistic. But it has been speculated upon by certain scientists. For instance, Many-Worlds Interpretation by Hugh Everett III and the concept of antimatter supports the idea of Parallel Universes.

For every activity that takes place there are different Universes, each pertaining to a different outcome of the activity.
For instance: Throwing Dice –
The number of outcomes is equal to six. If in our universe we get 1 as the outcome there could exist another universe where the outcome was 2 and another universe where the outcome was 4. This results in six universes existing simultaneously. 

Hence if an event has ‘n’ number of outcomes there exist ‘n’ different universes. 

Based on the above we can define Parallel Universes as Universes that differ from each other based on a single quantum event.

This concept also explains the idea of measuring an object in different states. That is, if an individual in our universe measured an object as a particle then there could be another universe where he measured the object as a wave.

Symmetry is observable in nature in all forms. For instance, we have hot and cold, positive charges and negative charges. Thus it is only reasonable to have an opposite for matter too. This opposite is called antimatter.

Einstein speculated upon existence of Parallel Universes due to the concept of antimatter. This can be seen in his equation:
E^= p^2c^2+m^2c^4
E = ±√( p^2c^2+m^2c^4)
E = ±mc2

E = +mc^2
Corresponds to Positive energy is the energy that we all deal with every day

E = -mc^2
Corresponds to Negative energy which represents anti-matter

Our universe consists only of matter. To balance out a universe consisting of matter it is justifiable to have one consisting only of antimatter. The other universe is a Parallel Universe.

Fundamental point of String theory
All objects are made of:
• Vibrating filaments of Energy– Strings
• Membranes of Energy– Branes

Ekpyrotic Universe Theory
According to the Ekpyrotic Universe theory our Universe is the result of collision between two Branes.

Branes could collide at more than one point
Consider a brane to be a sheet. When the sheet is flapped against another sheet there are multiple points of collision rather than just one.

When branes collide at multiple points, each point of collision gives rise to a universe. Thus Parallel Universes would be created. The characteristic of each universe depends on the conditions of the collision.

Consider that Parallel Universes do exist. But they are not visible to us. Two reasons as to why they are not visible:
• We can only see objects when illuminated by light. So, our vision is limited by the distance travelled by light. In other words, our vision is limited by the speed of light.
Light has been travelling ever since the Big Bang, which was 14 billion years ago. Light has traveled a distance of 14 billion light years. Anything that lies beyond this distance cannot be viewed by us.
Thus if a parallel universe does exist beyond this distance, it is invisible since light cannot reach it.

• Ever since the Big Bang regions in space have been expanding. This implies that our universe, alternate universes and the space between universes are expanding. So the distance between universes is becoming larger, thus making alternate universes unreachable.

The usual laws of physics are not applicable to alternate universes. This is because of the fact that the conditions through which parallel Universes are created differ from one to another.

Time Travel
Consider two Universes, one in the 21st century and other in 18th century. If an individual is able to travel from one universe to another, he is Time Traveling.

Time Travel is the travel from one universe to a Parallel Universe which is set apart in time from the former.

Consider two points in our Universe that are millions of light years apart. To travel from one point to the other, it would take a lot of time. But if we were able to have a tunnel through which we could travel faster than the speed of light, then we could reach our destination much faster. Since the normal laws of physics do not apply to Parallel Universes, a speed greater than the speed of light could be achieved. So, we can consider a Parallel Universe as our tunnel to travel to our destination.

A parallel Universe that is used as a medium to travel from one point in our Universe
to another point in our Universe is Hyperspace.

Parallel Universes can make what is at present impossible, possible.

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